It was really enjoyable to work my way through this. This is the first response I’ve done with these new church essays since I had read enough to be able to notice things that I recognized were missing, or implications that were being made that felt incomplete or inaccurate. As a result of this knowledge, I was surprised at how carefully this was written and what they choose to include and not. It bothered me more than I thought it would….as it was a recent example of what I feel is an attempt to portray transparency and accurate historical information….when in fact it’s missing a lot. This essay was written for a purpose, and I understand that, It was just discouraging to see how the historical narrative was massaged to fill that purpose.
After receiving a revelation commanding him to practice plural marriage, Joseph Smith married multiple wives and introduced the practice to close associates.
This gives the impression that the revelation on polygamy happened all at onceâ€¦.â€aâ€ revelation. No mention of the 1835 edition of the D&C Section 101 which stated â€œInasmuch as this church of Christ has been reproached with the crime of fornication, and polygamy: we declare that we believe, that one man should have one wife; and one woman, but one husband, except in case of death, when either is at liberty to marry again.â€ This was later removed and replaced, under the direction of Brigham Young, in 1876 with D&C Section 132.
In biblical times, the Lord commanded some of His people to practice plural marriageâ€”the marriage of one man and more than one woman.
The revelation, recorded in Doctrine and Covenants 132, states that Joseph prayed to know why God justified Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, and Solomon in having many wives. The Lord responded that He had commanded them to enter into the practice.
The footnotes used here are interesting references, since there is no indication in the bible that Abraham or others were commanded to practice plural marriage or take additional wives. The Genesis 16 reference is about Abramâ€™s wife Sarai, who is unable to conceive. Sarai asks Hagar, her handmaid, to act as surrogate. God did not command Abram to take Hagar as a plural wife. Sarai asked him to sleep with her so she could bear a child.
Although the Lord commanded the adoptionâ€”and later the cessationâ€”of plural marriage in the latter days, He did not give exact instructions on how to obey the commandment.
Itâ€™s difficult to imagine God requiring this and leaving it vague, without exact instructions. This is the God that requires specific wording for blessing the sacrament, baptism, and other ordinances. This is a god who revealed what part of a cow to burn, and how to sprinkle blood in the Old Testament. D&C 132 is quite specific and has a lot of detail in it. It specifically says in D&C 132: 8 â€œBehold, mine house is a house of order, saith the Lord God, and not a house of confusion.â€
There are certainly lots of very specific instructions given in D&C 132. There are also parts that are ignored? Verses 61-63 say: â€œAnd again, as pertaining to the law of the priesthoodâ€”if any man espouse a virgin, and desire to espouse another, and the first give her consent, and if he espouse the second, and they are virgins, and have vowed to no other man, then is he justified; he cannot commit adultery for they are given unto him; for he cannot commit adultery with that that belongeth unto him and to no one else.â€
We know that some of the women Joseph marries are not virgins and some were married to other men.
Many details about the early practice of plural marriage are unknown. Plural marriage was introduced among the early Saints incrementally, and participants were asked to keep their actions confidential. They did not discuss their experiences publicly or in writing until after the Latter-day Saints had moved to Utah and Church leaders had publicly acknowledged the practice.
While there are many details that remain unknown about early plural marriage, there is a wealth of credible, scholarly work that supports a more complete and complex story than the essay implies. The essay suggests that we can only speculate, yet it repeatedly dismisses or ignores well-documented details while cherry-picking ones that support protecting Joseph Smith’s reputation. It casts doubt on how much we can know and understand about what happened, and yet heavily engages in selective speculation that downplays or discounts the experiences of those most negatively impacted by early polygamy, including Joseph’s only legal wife, Emma Hale Smith.
The historical record of early plural marriage is therefore thin: few records of the time provide details, and later reminiscences are not always reliable.
The implication being, once again, that we just donâ€™t have enough information to understand. This time with a warning that later reminiscences may be unreliable. This is interesting since throughout the essay later reminiscences are included, but only when they suit the intended purpose. Interestingly, the church didnâ€™t hesitate to use later reminiscences legally in court cases in 1870.
The revelation on plural marriage was not written down until 1843, but its early verses suggest that part of it emerged from Joseph Smithâ€™s study of the Old Testament in 1831. People who knew Joseph well later stated he received the revelation about that time.
The essay suggests Joseph received the revelation in 1831 but it was not written down until 1843. It references neglects to mention one of the reasons why people later stated he received it about that time. In 1861, W.W. Phelps wrote Brigham Young about a revelation received on July 17, 1831 west of Independence for Elders who were about to commence a mission to Native Americans West of Missouri.
“For it is my will, that in time, ye should take unto you wives of the Lamanites and Nephites, that their posterity may become white, delightsome and Just, for even now their females are more virtuous than the gentiles.”Â
In 1834, Phelps asked Joseph Smith “how ‘we,’ that were mentioned in the revelation could take wives from the “natives”â€”as we were all married men? He replied instantly ‘In th[e] same manner that Abraham took Hagar and Katurah [Keturah]; and Jacob took Rachel Bilhah and Zilpah: by revelationâ€”the saints of the Lord are always directed by revelation.'”
Why wasnâ€™t this included this in the essay or the footnotes? Perhaps itâ€™s because itâ€™s completely racist and uncomfortable.
Consistent with this pattern, Joseph told associates that an angel appeared to him three times between 1834 and 1842 and commanded him to proceed with plural marriage when he hesitated to move forward. During the third and final appearance, the angel came with a drawn sword, threatening Joseph with destruction unless he went forward and obeyed the commandment fully.
The essay suggests God sent an angel to force Joseph to do something he didnâ€™t want to do. Do we have other indications where this type of situation occurred in the scriptures? What about Josephâ€™s free agency? According to Todd Compton by April of 1842 Joseph had married 10 women. Two of those were single, 7 were married and one was widowed. Between June – August of 1842 he married 6 additional women. Two of those were married, two were widowed and two were single. Why was the angel threatening him in 1842? Was he just not marrying women fast enough? What did the angel mean when he told Joseph he needed to obey the commandment fully? Later in the essay, it implies one possible explanation for polyandry. Joseph â€œmay have believed that sealings to married women would comply with the Lordâ€™s command without requiring him to have normal marriage relationships.â€ This seems to imply that normal marriage relationships meant that they would have included sexual relations. Then it goes on to say â€œthis could explain why, according to Lorenzo Snow, the angel reprimanded Joseph for having â€œdemurredâ€ on plural marriage even after he had entered into the practice. After this rebuke, according to this interpretation, Joseph returned primarily to sealings with single women.” Is it implying the angel was threatening Joseph on that third visit because he was not having â€œnormal marriage relationships (sex)? Perhaps the angel reminded him of the purpose for polygamyâ€¦.raise up seed unto Godâ€. Interestingly, during 1843 he married 17 additional women. Fourteen of those were single, one was widowed and two were married.
Fragmentary evidence suggests that Joseph Smith acted on the angelâ€™s first command by marrying a plural wife, Fanny Alger, in Kirtland, Ohio, in the mid-1830s. Several Latter-day Saints who had lived in Kirtland reported decades later that Joseph Smith had married Alger, who lived and worked in the Smith household, after he had obtained her consent and that of her parents. Little is known about this marriage, and nothing is known about the conversations between Joseph and Emma regarding Alger.
There is no mention that Fanny was 17 years old. There is real disagreement about whether a marriage occurred between Joseph and Fanny. â€œThe fullest description of the Joseph Smith-Fanny Alger marriage is in the Mosiah Hancock autobiography. Mosiah, born on April 9, 1834, did not have first-hand knowledge of the marriage. But while writing his autobiography, apparently in 1896, he reported the story as told to him by his father, Levi Hancock. One scholar notes â€œHowever, his narrative is not without its problems. Mosiah was born in 1834 and consequently could not have been an eye witness or participant. Furthermore, he recounted the story decades later in 1896. So this is one of those later reminiscences thatâ€™s included. Whatâ€™s left out is that Oliver Cowdery described it as a â€œdirty, nasty, filthy affairâ€. â€œThe sources written before 1839 indicate that most Church leaders knew nothing of a possible marriage. What they did know is suggested by the minutes of Oliver Cowderyâ€™s excommunication trial before the Far West High Council in April 1838â€¦.whee he was charged with â€œseeking to destroy the character of President Joseph Smith jr by falsely insinuating that he was guilty of adultery & c.â€ Fanny Algerâ€™s name was never mentioned, but doubtless she was the woman in question.â€
Brian Hales notes that â€œboth Emma and Fanny were traumatized and Oliver Cowdery alienated.â€ â€œIn addition, rumors of â€œadulteryâ€ quietly spread among the Saints. While they were never loud enough to reach the local media, they required specific damage control efforts by the Prophet. Chauncy Webb suggested that Emma learned about Josephâ€™s marriage to Fanny Alger when the girl became pregnant. According to Wilhelm Wyl, who interviewed â€œMr. W.â€: â€œIn Kirtland, [Joseph] was sealed there secretly to Fanny Alger. Emma was furious, and drove the girl, who was unable to conceal the consequences of her celestial relation with the prophet, out of her house.â€
Todd Compton writes that Fanny married Culver (the man she married after Joseph) in 1836, as recorded by the clerk for Justice Levi Eastridge. He says this marriage to Joseph happened in 1833, which is interesting since they just said the angelâ€™s first visit occurred sometime in 1834. Itâ€™s also important to note that the sealing power was not given to Joseph until April 3, 1836. Under what authority was this marriage performed?
Eliza Snow said she â€œwas well acquainted with her [Fanny Alger] as she [Eliza] lived with the Prophet at the timeâ€ that â€œEmma made such a fuss aboutâ€ her.â€ â€œThus, it appears Eliza was an eye witness to the â€œfussâ€ associated with the discovery of the relationship.â€ The essay also fails to mention Levi Hancock was “rewarded” by Joseph for setting this up this marriage with a marriage to Clarissa Reed. One scholar has noted that “Nauvoo plural marriages would show a similar pattern of “rewards” for those who helped solemnize Smith’s marriages”.
The rumors prompted members and leaders to issue carefully worded denials that denounced spiritual wifery and polygamy but were silent about what Joseph Smith and others saw as divinely mandated â€œcelestialâ€ plural marriage. The statements emphasized that the Church practiced no marital law other than monogamy while implicitly leaving open the possibility that individuals, under direction of Godâ€™s living prophet, might do so.
What about this quote from Joseph â€œWhat a thing it is for a man to be accused of committing adultery, and having seven wives, when I can only find one. I am the same man, and as innocent as I was fourteen years ago; and I can prove them all perjurers.â€
The essay actually tries to justify the bizarre way that Joseph, and other leaders, stretched and changed definitions for words. They practiced no marital law other than monogamy? Here is what footnote 22 says: â€œIn the denials, â€œpolygamyâ€ was understood to mean the marriage of one man to more than one woman but without Church sanction.â€ So we have this made up definition for the word polygamy. The argument that they were being completely forthright, because they were using their own specially made up phrase â€œcelestialâ€ plural marriage, is troublesome. It justifies dishonest, illegal behavior under the prophet’s direction and yet nowhere in this essay do they say anything about this being unacceptable or dishonest.
The exact number of women to whom he was sealed in his lifetime is unknown because the evidence is fragmentary.
There is a fascinating omission here about the number of wives in the body of the essay. It gives exact numbers for other people, but not for Joseph. They do note the range in footnote 24: â€œCareful estimates put the number between 30 and 40.â€ The essay doesnâ€™t mention these women by name. It doesnâ€™t mention that he married a mother and daughter. It doesnâ€™t mention that he married two sets of sisters.
The youngest was Helen Mar Kimball, daughter of Josephâ€™s close friends Heber C. and Vilate Murray Kimball, who was sealed to Joseph several months before her 15th birthday.
Why does the essay describe Helenâ€™s age this way rather than saying she was 14 years old? It doesnâ€™t mention that he was 38 and leaves out the surrounding details. Joseph told Heber he needed to surrender his wife, Vilate, to him in marriage. After 3 days of agonizing over this, Heber leads his wife to Joseph only then to be told it was some sort of Abrahamic test. Then he tells Heber to marry a certain woman and to keep this marriage a secret from his wife Vilate. Heber pleads with Joseph to reconsider and finally relents and marries her. After which he becomes depressed, unable to tell his first wife why. Meanwhile, Vilate prays to understand whatâ€™s happening and receives a vision about plural marriage and she accepts it.
Shortly after this Helen was given to Joseph as a plural wife. Helen records â€œMy father had but one Ewe Lamb, but willingly laid her upon the alter: how cruel this seamed to the mother whose heartstrings were already stretched untill they were ready to snap asunder, for he had taken Sarah Noon to wife & she thought she had made sufficient sacrafise, but the Lord required more. I will pass over the temptations which I had during the twenty four hours after my father introduced to me this principle & asked me if I would be sealed to Joseph, who came next morning & with my parents I heard himÂ teachÂ & explain the principle of [p. 1] Celestial marrage-after which he said to me, â€œIf you will take this step, it will ensure your eternal salvation and exaltation & that of your fatherâ€™s household & all of your kindred.
This promise was so great that I will-ingly gave myself to purchase so glorious a reward. None but God & his angels could see my motherâ€™s bleeding heartâ€”when Joseph asked her if she was willing, she replied â€œIf Helen is willing I have nothing more to say.â€ She had witnessed the sufferings of others, who were older & who better understood the step they were taking, & to see her child, who had scarcely seen her fifteenth summer, following in the same thorny path, in her mind she saw the misery which was as sure to come as the sun was to rise and set; but it was all hidden from me.â€
Helen Mar Kimball spoke of her sealing to Joseph as being â€œfor eternity alone,â€ suggesting that the relationship did not involve sexual relations.
Iâ€™m assuming the essay brings this up because the thought of a 38 year old man having sex with a 14 year old girl is uncomfortable. There is real disagreement about whether this marriage included sexual relations. If that is true and Joseph felt she was too young to sleep with, why alter her life so drastically by committing her to a polygamous marriage?
Neither these women nor Joseph explained much about these sealings, though several women said they were for eternity alone. Other women left no records, making it unknown whether their sealings were for time and eternity or were for eternity alone.
Again the implication is that we have no records even though there are several. One heartbreaking example is the story of Zina Huntingon. When Joseph first asked her she refused, as she was courting Henry and loved him. Joseph â€œSmith was always persistent in his marriage proposals, and rejections usually moved him to further effort, so he continued to press his suit with Zina at the same time that she was courting Henry. And Smith usually expressed his polygamous proposals in terms of prophetic commandments? Zina makes the decision to marry Henry and probably felt this would solve the situation with Joseph. â€œHowever, Zina learned soon afterwards, undoubtedly to her complete astonishment, that Smith had not given upâ€ and â€œremained conflicted until a day in October, apparently, when Joseph sent Dimick to her with a message: an angel with a drawn sword had stood over Smith and told him that if he did not establish polygamy, he would lose â€˜his position and his life.â€ Zina, faced with the responsibility for his position as prophet, and even perhaps his life, finally acquiesced.Â She was seven months pregnant when she married him. Henry â€œwas a faithful church member in good standing, an active seventy, the veteran of numerous missions.
How was this supposed to work in the next life for these husbands and wives who were already married? Were they basically being set up to lose their wife to Joseph after death? How could that not affect their current marriages and their feelings toward each other?
These sealings may also be explained by Josephâ€™s reluctance to enter plural marriage because of the sorrow it would bring to his wife Emma. He may have believed that sealings to married women would comply with the Lordâ€™s command without requiring him to have normal marriage relationships. This could explain why, according to Lorenzo Snow, the angel reprimanded Joseph for having â€œdemurredâ€ on plural marriage even after he had entered into the practice. After this rebuke, according to this interpretation, Joseph returned primarily to sealings with single women.”
The essay implies that Joseph did this to somehow protect Emma since they may not have included â€œnormal marriage relationshipsâ€. Iâ€™m guessing this is a roundabout way of saying marriages that included sex. Why would the angel rebuke him for these marriages? Why return primarily to marrying single women? The implication is that the angel wanted Joseph to have marriages that involved sex. If Joseph was following the purpose for plural marriage this would have been part of the relationships.
Another possibility is that, in an era when life spans were shorter than they are today, faithful women felt an urgency to be sealed by priesthood authority. Several of these women were married either to non-Mormons or former Mormons, and more than one of the women later expressed unhappiness in their present marriages.
The essay implies that at least some of the 11 polyandrous marriages were for eternity only (the next life)? Why would married women need to be married to Joseph when they already had husbands? What does this have to do with short life spans for married women? The implication here is that if a woman was married to an apostate/inactive man it was OK for her to marry Joseph or if they were unhappy in their marriages. How many of these husbands were asked or did they not deserve to be involved in the decision? What about the active worthy husbands like Orson Pratt, whose wife Sarah, Joseph had tried to marry while he was out on a mission? He became so distraught he left a suicide note for his wife? Or Orson Hyde, whose wife Nancy, Joseph did marry after Joseph sent him on a mission?
Emma approved, at least for a time, of four of Joseph Smithâ€™s plural marriages in Nauvoo, and she accepted all four of those wives into her household. She may have approved of other marriages as well. But Emma likely did not know about all of Josephâ€™s sealings. She vacillated in her view of plural marriage, at some points supporting it and at other times denouncing it.
This paragraph alone is astonishing. Emma approved of four of the 30-40 marriages. What about the rest of them? The essay fails to include the history leading up to Emma approving two of these marriages. â€œEmma had heard Joseph and Heber C. Kimball address the Relief Society and allude to a time when women would participate in the endowmentâ€ â€œJoseph taught that a man must obey God to be worthy of the endowment and that a wife must obey a righteous husband to merit the same reward. Until Emma could be obedient to Joseph and give him plural wives, she could not participate in the endowment ceremonies, yet he taught her that the endowment was essential for exaltation â€“as opposed to salvation, which Joseph taught was available to all through the atonement of Christ. Joseph wanted Emma to serve as the example, the Elect Lady, the â€œdisseminator of the endowment blessing,â€ to other women. Thus her rejection of plural marriage would have blocked her admittance into the Endowment Council, because she had not obeyed her husband, and therefore prevented other women from entering as well.
â€œSimultaneously with the endowment and plural marriage, Joseph formalized a third concept. He explained to Emma that husbands and wives could be married, â€œsealed,â€ forever by proper priesthood authority. Couples who had been married in traditional ceremonies were considered to be married for â€œtime,â€ or until death separated them, but unions made in the new Mormon ceremonies were to last beyond the grave.â€ â€œWithin the same few weeks, in the spring of 1842, both Hyrum Smith and Emma would accept plural marriage.â€
The essay fails to include the fact that two of these women, Eliza and Emily Patridge, were young sisters, living/working in their house. â€œThe sisters were an awkward selection because Joseph had already married them two months earlier in March without Emmaâ€™s knowledge.â€ Â When Emma finally approved, he didn’t want her to know he had already married them, so he remarried them on May 23, 1843, in a pretend ceremony. â€œEmily said that â€œto save family trouble Brother Joseph thought it best to have another ceremony performedâ€¦.[Emma] had her feelings, and so we thought there was no use in saying anything about it so long as she had chosen us herselfâ€
â€œEmma had made the sacrifice; and within five days she had her reward. On a cold rainy day, May 28, 1843, Emma was sealed to Joseph for â€œtime and all eternityâ€ On this same day she was the first woman admitted to the Prayer Circle. Joseph would initiate her into the endowment sometime before the early autumn of that year. Shortly thereafter she changed her mind about Eliza and Emily, and tried to monitor their whereabouts in the house when Joseph was home. â€œEmma was not successful in keeping Joseph from meeting with his wives. Emily Patridge would one day testify under oath that she â€œroomedâ€ with Joseph on the night of their second marriage to him while Emma, she believed, was in the house at the time. She also testified that she had â€œslept with himâ€ between her first marriage and the second ceremony.
It wasnâ€™t â€œlikelyâ€ that Emma didnâ€™t know of the remaining marriages â€¦.we know she didnâ€™t know. There are numerous examples of this. One of those involved her best friend, Eliza Snow, who married Joseph on June 29, 1842 for time and eternity. Unaware of this marriage, Emma invited Eliza to live with them and she taught the Smith Family School. Records indicate that in February of 1843, Emma was stunned to discover this relationship, and a possible physical altercation took place. There are repeated incidents where Joseph hid what he was doing and Emma was suspicious and upset. It leaves out the details about how these hidden marriages were performed, the circumstances surrounding Josephâ€™s proposals and the experiences of these girls/women. The essay doesnâ€™t include all of wives names or mention them in the footnotes. The focus is on Joseph. The essay shares quotes from three of them.
The revelation on marriage required that a wife give her consent before her husband could enter into plural marriage. Nevertheless, toward the end of the revelation, the Lord said that if the first wife â€œreceive not this lawâ€â€”the command to practice plural marriageâ€”the husband would be â€œexempt from the law of Sarah,â€ presumably the requirement that the husband gain the consent of the first wife before marrying additional women. After Emma opposed plural marriage, Joseph was placed in an agonizing dilemma, forced to choose between the will of God and the will of his beloved Emma. He may have thought Emmaâ€™s rejection of plural marriage exempted him from the law of Sarah. Her decision to â€œreceive not this lawâ€ permitted him to marry additional wives without her consent. Because of Josephâ€™s early death and Emmaâ€™s decision to remain in Nauvoo and not discuss plural marriage after the Church moved west, many aspects of their story remain known only to the two of them.
This comes from D&C 132, which was added in 1876, years after Joseph engaged in polygamy. Footnote 43 says: see also Genesis 16: 1-3 which doesnâ€™t seem to match at all. Emma was able to conceive and bear children. So were many of these other first wives. Why is this story being used to come up with a law that tells men they can take additional wives even if they donâ€™t approve? It has a backdoor written right into the law so why even ask? Are we really supposed to accept this law comes from a God who loves his daughters? How are we supposed to feel that itâ€™s still included in our scriptures? What precedent and message does this send to the women in the church?
There may be many aspects, of Joseph and Emmaâ€™s story, that remain known only to them. However, there are also numerous examples of how Emma felt about polygamy.
Difficult as it was, the introduction of plural marriage in Nauvoo did indeed â€œraise up seedâ€ unto God. A substantial number of todayâ€™s members descend through faithful Latter-day Saints who practiced plural marriage.
In Jacob 2:30 it says â€œFor if I will, saith the Lord of Hosts, raise up seed unto me, I will command my people; otherwise they shall hearken unto these things.â€ The essay points out that a substantial number of todayâ€™s members have descended through polygamy. How exactly does this fit with the earlier attempts at clarifying when Joseph had sex and with what wives? Was Joseph following the purpose as God revealed it? If not, why the marriages? Why the secrecy, the denials and the pain for Emma and other wives? Why the endless ongoing discussions about whether Joseph had sexual relations with his wives?
Church members no longer practice plural marriage. Consistent with Joseph Smithâ€™s teachings, the Church permits a man whose wife has died to be sealed to another woman when he remarries. Moreover, members are permitted to perform ordinances on behalf of deceased men and women who married more than once on earth, sealing them to all of the spouses to whom they were legally married. The precise nature of these relationships in the next life is not known, and many family relationships will be sorted out in the life to come. Latter-day Saints are encouraged to trust in our wise Heavenly Father, who loves His children and does all things for their growth and salvation
The essay clearly doesnâ€™t back away from the doctrine of polygamy. In fact, it reiterates that in the temple plural sealings have been and continue to happen. The current sealing policy is that men and women can be sealed to all spouses to whom they were legally married in life, after all parties are dead. The conclusion is that the church continues to practice both polygamy and polyandry for the next life. The essay tries to soften that by saying the precise nature of these relationships is not known and remind members to trust in Heavenly Father to sort it all out.
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, Brian Hales, Joseph Smithâ€™s Polygamy History, Linda King Newell and Valeen Tippets Avery, Mormon Enigma: Emma Hale Smith, Fawn Brodie, No Man Knows My History, FairMormon, George D. Smith, Nauvoo Polygamy, The Joseph Smith Papers, Orson F. Whitney, William Claytonâ€™s Journal, The Life of Heber C. Kimball, BYU Studies, Richard Bushman, Rough Stone Rolling
 Phelps to Brigham Young, LDS archives, 12 Aug. 1861
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, p. 4-6
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, p. 6
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, p. 29
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, p. 28, see also Richard Bushman, Rough Stone Rolling, p. 323
 Richard Bushman, Rough Stone Rolling, p. 324
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, p. 25
 D&C Section 110: 13-16
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, p. 25
 Willard Richards, Joseph Smith Diary, May 26, 1844
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, p. 171
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, p. 288-305, 473-485
 Orson F. Whitney, Life of Heber C. Kimball, 333-339
 Jeni Broberg Holzapfel and Richard Neitzel Holzapfel, eds.,Â A Womanâ€™s View: Helen Mar Whitneyâ€™s Reminiscences of Early Church HistoryÂ (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1997), 481â€“487
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, p. 79-80
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, p. 80-81
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, p. 84
 Richard Bushman, Rough Stone Rolling, p. 466-67
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, p. 228-253
 Linda King Newell and Valeen Tippets Avery, Mormon Enigma, p. 140
 Richard Bushman, Rough Stone Rolling, p. 494, see also Linda King Newell and Valeen Tippets Avery, Mormon Enigma, p. 143-144
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, p. 313-314, Linda King Newell and Valeen Tippets Avery, Mormon Enigma p. 132-134
 Linda King Newell and Valeen Tippets Avery, Mormon Enigma, p. 143
 Linda King Newell and Valeen Tippets Avery, Mormon Enigma, p. 143
 Linda King Newell and Valeen Tippets Avery, Mormon Enigma, p. 144
 Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness, Linda King Newell and Valeen Tippets Avery, Mormon Enigma