Recently there has been much talk surrounding a YW leader who is unfortunately threatened of having her temple recommend withdrawn if she does not leave the room or cover herself while breastfeeding at church meetings. (Call to Action – Lactivism)
There are many things wrong with this scenario.Â The LDS church is all about the Family, and one would think they would consider the most beneficial options surrounding parenting in their policies and practices to reinforce the “family” way. Â We are certainly too uptight about breastfeeding in general in our western society, much less a Mormon one. Â The church really doesn’t like being forced, however. Â It is a patriarchal authoritarian one and if they feel they are being coerced, Â will pull that authoritarian trigger to assert power where they might not normally.Â Apparently mitigating factors were omitted from the original petition that would help us determine whether or not this is just a rogueÂ ecclesiasticalÂ authority, or if something degraded in the communication between this gal and her ecclesiastical leader that he felt compelled to pull the authoritarian trigger.
Before I explore the nuts and bolts of the topic which has spread like spilt milk across the Mormon social media channels,Â I will disclose I rarely breastfed my children in church and when I did, I did it in the nursing room.Â I didn’t feel inconvenienced in doing so, in fact I often fled to the nursing room as the perfect excuse to get out of a predicted mundane, repetitive lesson or talk.Â I have since left the church for reasons more ancillary to the mundane brain dead aspect and nothing related to feeding my children in a nursing room.Â As someone who does not feel the church is ultimately a healthy or authentic belief system, I would be the first to encourage any woman to take her nursing baby and permanently exit the church if she feels strongly enough about the matter.
That said, I have had frustrations trying to engage in a reasonable dialogue about openly breastfeeding in church. Â I am a mother of four. Â I gave birth to my children naturally and am generally a proponent of all things nature-based. Â There are a few main arguments being made in this discussion, however, that must be considered and addressed if the overall point is to be taken seriously.Â It is clear there is a bias from lactivists for ignoring certain inconvenient truths about both the biology of the breast and breastfeeding, as well as dismissing clear cultural ramifications along the way.Â Ignoring is counterproductive and easily allows anyone with basic knowledge of anatomy to dismiss the argument in its entirety.
Lactivist Assertion One:Â Breasts are designed solely to feed the young and any man who looks upon an exposed breast as anything but a pure maternal act is either a pervert or culturally misguided.
Fact one:Â Humans are part of the hominid family.Â We are the only hominid where the breasts remain swollen at all times.Â All other hominids have flat chests, except when lactating.Â Furthermore, human hominids walk upright at all times.Â As a result of us always being upright and frequently front facing (as opposed to other hominids), humans evolved the permanently swollen breasts as an alternate sexual attractor.Â All other hominids use the buttocks as their sexual attractor.Â In Desmond Morris’ “The Naked Ape”, he points out the evolutionary design switch of the general shape of the human breasts mirroring the buttocks; rounded with cleavage between them.Â The larger the breast, the more closely they resemble the shape of buttocks.Â From an evolutionary standpoint, this is the reason why larger breasts tend to be more attractive.Â The breasts tend to swell when a woman is ovulating, suggesting fertility.Â Additionally, the subconscious part of the male heterosexual mind messages that the larger the breast, the more milk it can produce, thus increasing the survival chance of offspring.
With regards to larger breasts, evolutionary psychology has recently contended men prefer women with larger breasts as it makes it easier for him to judge a woman’s age (and her reproductive value) according to the level of gravitational sag that comes with age (Marlowe, Â 1998)
INCONVENIENT TRUTH:Â Males are designed by nature to find breasts attractive.Â To insist they don’t is akin to asking a homosexual to not be attracted to his own gender.Â Lactivists may not like this answer, but it is a fact.
Lactivist Assertion Two:Â The breast is not a sex organ. There is nothing sexual about a mother feeding her baby!(see prolactin’s maternal-inducing traits)
Fact One: Or is it?Â They are well connected. If not blatantly sexual,Â breasts most assuredly should be viewed as an erogenous zone.Â Â After birth, estrogen and progesterone levels decrease while prolactin and oxytocin levels increase.Â Prolactin, which is secreted by the anterior pituitary, stimulates the breasts to produce milk. The prolactin level is very high in the early postpartum period in order to stimulate initial milk production.Â Prolactin induces maternal behavior: a lactating mother experiences a form of psychological tension, which can best be described as a feeling or need of always wanting to see and hold her baby (Brewster, 1979).
Oxytocin is the primary connector between the breast and sexual response.Â It is secreted by the posterior pituitary, has two major functions in relation to breastfeeding: a) a new mother feels her uterus contract during breastfeeding, and b) it is responsible for the milk ejection reflex during breastfeeding and orgasm. Oxytocin has the opposite psychological impact as prolactin does: It calms the physiological tension induced by prolactin. Consequently, while breastfeeding, the mother will experience a sense of well-being and contentment. The consequences of these hormones are that each time a woman breastfeeds, she derives great pleasure from the experience and contact with her baby. As a result, all or a very great part of her needs for affection are met through breastfeeding even if she is only partially breastfeeding. Â This is obviously healthy and normal. However, one result is that the breastfeeding woman will likely have a decreased need to seek out her partner for pleasure and affection (Also referred to as affection anesthesia).
Oxytocin produces striking parallel effects between breastfeeding and coital orgasm:
- Both stimulate uterine contractions
- Both cause nipple erection
- Breast stroking and nipple stimulation occur during both breastfeeding and sexual foreplay
- Hormonal emotions are aroused by both types of contact in the form of skin changes
- Milk let-down or milk ejection reflex can be triggered during both
According to some researchers, anywhere of 24% – 29% of women can experience orgasm solely as a result from oxytocin released during nipple stimulation. The percentage may increase if the woman has her legs crossed, as the uterine contractions released by the oxytocin can trigger a physiological sexual response.Â This is otherwise known as a breast orgasm. Nipple stimulation activates the same region of the brain as clitoral, vaginal and cervical stimulation. (Journal of Sexual Medicine, Volume 8, 2011)
Another clear biological lactation/genital connection is the lack of vaginal lubrication when the breastfeeding mother becomes sexually excited.
INCONVENIENT TRUTH:Â The breast is connected to sexuality.Â It is simply unreasonable to expect all of humanity to treat it otherwise.
Lactivist Assertion Three:Â Our culture is uptight and just needs to get over it.Â Especially Mormon Culture.
Fact One:Â There are three uphill challenges in overcoming breast issues in the church.
1.Â Modesty in dress, particularly for females is pervasive in Mormon culture.Â A quick search for modesty related information on LDS.org yields 451 results.Â This should be a self explanatory challenge for those who are LDS.Â Modesty is tied to cleanliness, chastity and purity.Â For a cultural environment who emphasizes coverage of shoulders and knees, as well as garments, it should not be surprising they would be less relaxed about having exposed breasts at church.Â Regardless of the wholesome reason that may be behind it, exposing a breast for ANY reason is going to fall outside of normal range and the tribe will react as such.
2.Â Recent research from University of Westminster, Archives of Sexual Behavior just last month revealed interesting information about the type of man who favors larger breasts.Â Researcherâ€™s found that the largest percentage of participants (32.7 percent) rated medium-sized breasts as “most attractive,” followed by large (24.4 percent), very large (19.1 percent), small (15.5 percent) and very small (8.3 percent). However, a preference for large and very large breasts was significantly correlated with overt sexism, benevolent sexism, female objectification and hostile attitudes toward women. This connection was strongest when it came to benevolent sexism [emphasis by Froggie]. In other words, men who tend to idealize “traditional” femininity and perceive women as meek and weak, are also the most likely to prefer big breasts. “It is arguable that benevolently sexist men perceived larger female breasts as attractive because larger breast size on a woman is associated with perceived femininity.”
3. Western culture has made progress regarding breastfeeding.Â It does, however, have secondary side effects of pornography, even maternal breast-targeted pornography such as pregnancy or nursing fetishes, that provide a less conducive climate to just simply “understanding and getting over it.”
INCONVENIENT TRUTH:Â When you add the aspect of “benevolent sexism” along with the already existing Mormon-centric Â puritanical, patriarchal, rigid gender role defined environment, layered with a coating of broader Western culture, this is no small uphill battle.Â To quote Sun Tzu, “Know your enemy.”Â Trying to leverage the breast as a tool when the tool itself has an enormous amount of already existing stigma may not be the best strategy.Â It isnâ€™t a situation that one just wakes up and â€œgets over.â€
Conclusion:Â If productive dialogue is to occur with the church on the matter of transitioning the cultural climate to allow for ease of breastfeeding at church, Â one must acknowledge the above-listed inconvenient truths and be prepared to include them as part of the discussion. Â Not ignore them or be blissifully ignorant of their impact. Â A special nod of acknowledgement must be given to the current cultural norms within Mormonism Â as well if one wants to effect change on this front.
Komisaruk, Barry R., and Beverly Whipple. “Functional MRI of the brain during orgasm in women.” Annual Review of Sex Research 16 (2005): 62.
Levin, R. J. (2006). The breast/nipple/areola complex and human sexuality. Sexual & Relationship Therapy, 21, 237-249.
Marlowe, Frank. “The Nubility Hypothesis.” Human Nature 9.3 (1998): 263-271.
Sex and Breastfeeding:Â An Educational Perspective. J Perinat Educ. 1999 Winter; 8(1): 30â€“40.doi:Â 10.1624/105812499X86962
Sholty, M. J., Ephross, P. H., Plaut, S. M., Fischman, S. H., Charnas, J. F., & Cody, C. A. (1984). Female orgasmic experience: A subjective study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 13, 155-164.
The Journal of Sexual Â Medicine. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02388.x. Surprise finding in response to nipple stimulation Lay summary â€“ CBSnews.com (5 August 2011).
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